If this ailment caught up with you, see your doctor and read this article.
Worms are called parasitic worms that live off other animals and plants, feed and reproduce inside living organisms. According to statistics, every third inhabitant of the planet has these parasites. Scientists argue that there is no such adult person who has not had worms in his entire life. Consider how to get rid of worms, what types exist, how to detect and prevent them. Note that worms (ascariasis, enterobiasis) are a common problem, especially in childhood, and you should not panic.
Types of worms in humans
Helminths - the scientific name for worms - have their own subspecies. The most common helminths are pinworms, roundworms. Let's take a look at them.
Pinworms are called helminths that affect the human intestines. They are the most famous and widespread species. The reproduction of these helminths leads to the development of the disease - enterobiasis. Preschool children and schoolchildren are most susceptible to pinworm infection.
General signs of the presence of helminths in the body:
- itching sensation in the anus;
- cramping abdominal pain, usually mild;
- decreased appetite;
- violation of the stool;
- insomnia and weakness;
- allergic reactions that do not go away after the use of antiallergic drugs;
- unreasonable cough.
Method of infection: contact and household route. Infection occurs when eggs are swallowed with food. Self-infection is extremely important - when combing an itchy anus, pinworm eggs fall under the fingernails and then are swallowed. Adults can also become infected from children later.
Ascariasis is a family of large parasitic roundworms. The worm lives from 10 to 24 months, after which it, partially decomposed, comes out with feces. The organs of the gastrointestinal tract are most often affected, causing ascariasis. The preferred habitat for adults is the small intestine.
Giardiasis - A disease caused by lamblia, a parasite in the small intestine of humans and some animals. Giardia exist in two forms: mobile (vegetative) and motionless (cyst form). The mobile form of lamblia has 4 pairs of flagella and a suction disc, with which it attaches to the mucous membrane of the small intestine. It lives in the human body in the duodenum (small intestine).
Causes of worms in humans
The main factors of infection with helminthiases are:
- Failure to comply with basic hygiene rules, especially hand washing.
- Bad habits. These include biting nails, licking fingers, holding various objects (pens, pencils) in the mouth.
- Insufficient care of pets, especially yard pets, because they can be a carrier of infection. After the street, cats and dogs need to wipe their paws, bathe in time, take them for examination and choose the right food.
- Drinking raw, unfiltered water from an unreliable source.
- Vegetables, fruits and greens unprocessed before meals;
- Poorly processed meat and fish products.
- Close contact with an infected person.
- Sandboxes - it is in them that worms live. Sandboxes in playgrounds should be kept away from cats and dogs.
Why are worms dangerous?
Thanks to modern medicine, it is possible to detect a disease in time, get rid of it, therefore, serious consequences are quite rare phenomena. Worms can cause the following phenomena:
- intestinal obstruction;
- allergic rash;
- predisposition to poisoning;
- the development of anemia;
- deterioration of health;
- weight loss;
- lowering the percentage of hydrochloric acid in gastric juice.
Helminthic invasion can provoke weight loss, a pale shade, itching in the anal passage. Complications depend on the type of parasite and the degree of infection. The appearance of helminths in children and during pregnancy is especially dangerous.
How to know if there are worms
It is important to detect helminthic invasion as early as possible, which significantly increases the effectiveness of treatment and prevents the development of complications.
Basic diagnostic methods:
- analysis of feces for intestinal parasites (ascariasis);
- analysis of scrapings for pinworm eggs (enterobiasis);
- a blood test for the determination of specific antibodies to worms (detection of immunoglobulins - ELISA) - intestinal and tissue parasites. The most revealing study.
Re-analysis should be carried out no earlier than 14 days after the anthelmintic treatment. Typically, the patient is prescribed a combination of several tests in order to identify the parasite. The criterion for recovery is a negative ELISA result and several negative results of the study of the biological environment where the worms are detected.
Pay attention! Requirements for the preparation of biomaterial (feces for intestinal parasites):
- Prepare a sterile container. Now they have created specialized containers that are equipped with a convenient spoon. You can buy it at any pharmacy;
- Do not use a laxative;
- Feces are collected in the morning before being tested;
- It is impossible to allow urine to enter the feces, therefore, it is imperative to urinate before the process.
- It is necessary to collect material from various parts of the last portion.
- Put in a prepared container about a tablespoon of feces (10-15 g).
- Deliver the container to the laboratory as soon as possible - the so-called "warm feces".
Scraping for enterobiasisperformed in the morning, in the child's bed, before the morning emptying and hygiene procedures. A transparent narrow tape is used, which is applied with the sticky side to the perianal folds, and then, with the same side with the biomaterial, is glued onto a clean, dry slide. Do not use any matte or colored sticky stitch.
Methods of dealing with worms
An infectious disease specialist or parasitologist is involved in the treatment of parasitic infestations. But you should not immediately go to a doctor with a narrow specialization: it is better to contact a pediatrician or therapist. He will appoint a number of studies and, if necessary, refer to a parasitologist or gastroenterologist.
If worms are detected in a child, it is imperative to conduct antihelminthic therapy for all family members.
When worms are found, the doctor prescribes antiparasitic agents aimed at combating a specific type of worms. Modern drugs effectively fight worms at every stage of the life cycle: adults, larvae and eggs. In most cases (for example, ascariasis), a single dose of pills is sufficient, but sometimes it is required to undergo a course of drugs - the treatment is developed by a specialist doctor.
It is unacceptable to violate the treatment tactics prescribed by the doctor - this can lead to the fact that the eggs of the worms remain in the body, which in the future will cause re-invasion.
What pills can be used
Modern medicines are presented in the form of tablets or suspensions for children.
The method of application for all drugs is different. It is important to carefully read the instructions and follow them clearly. Another point is contraindications. Contraindications are based on various liver diseases, pregnancy and breastfeeding. Ideally, discuss this with your doctor.
Medicines are selected by the attending physician depending on the type of worms, the characteristics of the organism, the stage of infection, the age of the patient. Not always, in order to drive away the worms, there are enough anthelmintic drugs. In some cases, complex treatment is prescribed.
After its vital activity, the worm causes damage to our body. Therefore, it is important not only to carry out anthelmintic therapy, but also it is necessary to cleanse the body of toxins formed during the death of worms.
The killed helminth secretes decay products, which are among the most powerful intestinal poisons. Allergic reactions may occur, the formation and outflow of bile is disturbed, the gastrointestinal tract peristalsis suffers, which manifests itself in the form of a "lazy intestine" or, on the contrary, its excessive activity - diarrhea - "leaky gut". The body's resistance to viruses and bacteria decreases, latent chronic infections are activated.
Along with antiparasitic agents, drugs that improve the condition of the gastrointestinal tract, vitamins to eliminate vitamin deficiency, antihistamines (in case of an allergic reaction), hepatoprotectors, choleretic and sorbents can be prescribed.
Currently, in the arsenal of pharmacies, you can buy phyto complexes that combine all these effects.
Let's see what kind of medicinal plants will help us get rid of helminths.
Treatment with folk remedies
Pumpkin seeds and honey
Pumpkin seeds have long been known in folk medicine, their pharmacological properties have been confirmed experimentally and clinically. The seeds are used against various tapeworms (bovine, pork and dwarf tapeworms, broad tapeworm) and pinworms.
The main pharmacologically active substance that determines the anthelmintic effect of pumpkin seeds is the amino compound cucurbitin (3-amino-3-carboxypyrrolidine), the content of which in seeds reaches 0. 1-0. 3%, depending on the pumpkin variety.
- To combat worms, 300. 0 peeled seeds are taken in small portions on an empty stomach for 1 hour (you can grind in a mortar, always with a green shell and mix with 50-100. 0 honey).
- After 3 hours, a laxative is given, after 0. 5 hours an enema is given.
- Children 3-4 years old are given 75. 0 seeds;
- 5-7 years old - 100. 0;
- 8-10 years old - 150. 0;
- 10-15 years old - 200. 0-250. 0.
Garlic, the beneficial properties of which are known all over the world, is most widespread in different countries. Garlic (Allium sativum L. ) contains phytoncides, the main of which are allicin, geraniol, rutin, quercetin. Garlic has a general strengthening effect, stimulates immunity, has anthelmintic, antimicrobial, antiviral and fungicidal activity, enhances the motor and secretory activity of the gastrointestinal tract, suppresses fermentation and putrefaction in the intestine.
The beneficial properties of yarrow are expressed in choleretic action, increased production of gastric juice, improved appetite. Thanks to its antispasmodic effect, yarrow herb is used to reduce pain caused by intestinal spasms.
Turmeric has been used in traditional Indian Ayurveda medicine as a remedy for many ailments, including colds, stomach ulcers, liver diseases, and to heal skin wounds. Turmeric is rich in essential oils, the constituent components of which are borneol, known for its powerful antiseptic effect, as well as fellandrene, tsingiberen, curcumin and others. It also contains vitamins in high concentrations (vitamin -% of the daily value): B6 - 90%; C - 28%; E - 20. 7%; B1 - 10%. A safe daily dose of turmeric is 1 teaspoon. Daily intake of turmeric improves digestion, stimulates the gallbladder (turmeric should not be used for cholelithiasis, since the spice leads to an increased outflow of bile) and lowers blood cholesterol levels.
In modern medicine, the fruits of caraway are used to treat diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, intestinal atony, flatulence. The plant is used for spasms of the biliary tract. Caraway fruits are part of carminative, gastric, appetizing and other collections.
- The infusion is prepared at the rate of 2-3 teaspoons of caraway seeds per glass of boiling water.
- Insist 45 minutes and take 2-3 tbsp. spoons (children 1 teaspoon). 5-6 times a day before meals.
Prevention of helminthiasis
In order not to catch a parasite for yourself, it is imperative to follow the rules of hygiene: a modern change of linen, a regular shower, and hand washing. It is even better to spray household items with an antiseptic.
It is important to eat the right food and handle it well. Be especially careful with fish and meat. During gutting, fish should be carefully examined for eggs and worms, and a separate board should be used to cut raw fish and meat. In the spring and summer, it is important to thoroughly wash the greens and berries from the garden.
You also need to carry out regular spring cleaning. Drink only proven water and treat your pets with care and proper care. The main guardian - immunity - also needs help and care.
If there are animals in the house, then it is imperative to carry out prophylaxis against worms for all family members, be sure to include the most beloved pet.