Types of parasites in the human body

Types of parasites in the human body is exceptionally diverse. One of them, along with the many cell and protozoa are also viruses, bacteria and fungi that parasitize the human body, although in the medical traditions of viruses and bacteria are not considered parasites.

Types of parasites in the human body

In the human body different types of parasites are localized not only in the intestine, as is commonly believed, but also in many other organs: blood, tissues, muscles, joints, brain (head and spinal), and even in the eyes.

Particularly affected by it such internal organs as the gastrointestinal tract, liver, lungs, heart.

Stay parasites in the human body is far from innocuous. Harmful effects lies primarily in the fact that they absorb a considerable part of dietary nutrients, without which the full functioning of the organism impossible.

The imbalance is compounded by the General intoxication of the human body due to the toxins released by parasites that can lead to the development of a number of diseases up to cancer. Often, diseases caused by parasites, become chronic.

A particular danger lies in the fact that parasitic diseases are caused by symptoms typical of other, often intestinal infections, therefore, of great importance is the timely differential diagnosis to identify the species of the parasite and to develop appropriate treatment strategy.

The species of human parasites in General can be divided into two large groups:

  • ectoparasite, a parasite on the body surface and feeding on the blood of humans (bedbugs, fleas, lice, mites); they are the carriers of pathogens of such diseases as encephalitis, typhoid, anthrax, etc.;
  • endoparasite parasitic on the internal organs and cause serious diseases; these include protozoa (Giardia, amoeba, Trichomonas, Toxoplasma) and helminths – parasitic worms (worms).

Classification of parasites


Let us consider the main types of endoparasites of man. The appearance of many of them can only be seen under a microscope, and some, especially helminths, affect its size. Let's start with the simplest:

  • Giardia along with the liver also cause of hypovitaminosis, anemia and General intoxication of the organism.
  • Toxoplasma affect the brain, eyes, heart muscle, nervous system, but the special danger they pose to pregnant women because of the risk of fetal death or severe lesions.
  • The amoeba can cause amoebic dysentery, amoebic encephalitis and other dangerous diseases.
  • Trichomonas are sources of infectious diseases of the genitourinary system.

The most common parasites

The most common endoparasite are, of course, helminths (worms), which, according to various estimates, infected more than 80% of the world population.

A huge number of these parasites are divided into basic types:

  • nematodes – round worms (roundworm, pinworm, Trichinella, whipworm, etc.);
  • cestodes – tapeworms (lantecy, pork and beef tapeworm, Echinococcus, etc.);
  • trematodes – worms-flukes (liver, blood, lung, and flukes that live in the intestines).

Sometimes you can find a more General classification, according to which all types of parasites people are divided into:

  • intestinal, parasites in the intestine;
  • tissue, localized in other organs and tissues.

However, most of the worms at different stages of their life cycle and are tissue, and intestinal development period with the corresponding symptoms.

Consider a brief description of the most common types of worms.

Roundworms (nematodes)

  • Roundworm – roundworms are the most common length from 20 to 40 cm, parasites in the small intestine, but first migrate in the human body, affecting the blood and respiratory system. Along with these intestinal parasites can be detected in the liver and gall bladder, heart and lungs. A common symptom of ascariasis and allergic reaction.
  • Pinworms – small worms, up to 1 cm, affecting the intestines and lead to enterobiasis disorder of the gastrointestinal tract, exhaustion, sleep disorders, etc. the Characteristic symptom of pinworms is itching in the anus, where they lay their eggs.
  • Trichinella – these microscopic worms (their size only a few millimeters) lead to severe diseases – trichinosis, which can if untreated lead to death. Adult species live in humans in the muscles (respiratory, face, etc.), causing muscle pain, fever, swelling, allergic skin rash.
  • Vlasoglavy – worms small (length up to 4.5 cm, with the front part of the body

The larvae which cause trichocephalosis with diarrhea, acute abdominal pain and other symptoms resembling appendicitis. As a result of intoxication anemia.

Tapeworms (cestodes)

  • A tapeworm, the body length of which reaches up to 10 m, leads to the development of difillobotrioz with nausea, weakness, vomiting, unstable chair, asthenia and anemia.
  • Pork tapeworm has a length of from 3 to 8 m, a parasite mainly in the small intestine and causes two diseases: taeniasis with dyspeptic, asthenic-neurotic and abdominal syndromes, and cysticercosis with intoxication, intestinal, allergic and respiratory symptoms. Depending on the localization of tsistitserki affects the muscles, brain, heart, eyes, etc.
  • Dwarf tapeworm
  • Beef tapeworm, the length of which can reach up to 18 m, and causes the beef tapeworm infection is considered to be one of the most dangerous types of worms. If you do not deal dehelmintization, it can stay in the body for up to 18-20 years! Is localized in the large intestine, causes severe intoxication with their waste products, as well as diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, anemia, allergic reactions and problems with the nervous system.
  • Dwarf tapeworm length of only 1.5-5 cm source gimenolepidoz with dyspeptic pain and astheno-neurotic syndromes affecting primarily the digestive and nervous system, and liver.
  • Echinococcus is considered to be the smallest tape worm – its length is from 2.5 to 8, rarely 9 mm, but the infection it has terrible consequences such as liver and lung, where they form cysts and tumors causing dysfunction of these organs.

Worms-flukes (trematodes)

  • Liver fluke or the liver Fluke is shaped like a sheet with a length of 30-50 mm and a width of 8-13 mm, has a suction Cup. It damages the sheath of the liver and clog the bile ducts that is able to completely block the flow of bile. Can lead to cirrhosis, jaundice and liver cancer.
  • Cat (Siberian) fluke cat or a Fluke, flat worm with a length of 4-13 mm. Localization – the ducts of the gallbladder, liver and pancreas. Causes opisthorchiasis with the development of gastritis, ulcers, pancreatitis, cholecystitis until liver cancer, which can lead to death.
  • The lung fluke has an ovoid shape, red-brown body with small spines, length from 7.5 to 12 mm with a width of 4-8 mm. Affects the lungs, causing inflammation, pleural effusion, focal fibrosis, and lung cancer. When the penetration into the brain causing encephalitis and meningoencephalitis.
  • Shistosoma (blood flukes) – dioecious worms with a size of 1-2 cm, the eggs of which cause an increase in liver, spleen and lymph nodes, the formation of polyps in the intestine, diarrhea, granulomatous inflammation, leading to cancer of the bladder.

Sources of infection

Sources of infection

Helminthiasis can lead to numerous health problems that reduce the life of 15-25 years. Many parasites are extremely difficult to detect. They can be anywhere - in the blood, intestines, lungs, heart, brain. Symptoms of worm infestation can be confused with SARS, gastrointestinal disease and others. The fundamental error in such cases the delay! If you are suspicious for the presence of parasites, you need to see a specialist. If we talk about medications and self-treatment against the most common helminths (Ascaris, pinworms, tapeworms) suitable antiparasitic complex.

Helminthiasis, like other intestinal diseases, is often a "disease of dirty hands", which leads to accumulation of eggs and larvae of helminths in the human body:

  • when you do not wash their hands after using the toilet and before eating;
  • do not wash vegetables, fruits and greens that are consumed raw;
  • do not put meat and fish sufficient heat treatment;
  • incorrectly the consumption of salted fish and bacon;
  • leave food accessible to flies and cockroaches;
  • use the feces as fertilizer on garden plots;
  • swimming in the ponds;
  • contact with stray animals.
Methods of struggle

However, from your pet can also be infected with worms, because often animals serve as intermediate hosts for helminths, but the primary host is man.

Methods of struggle

  • From a very early age to instill in children the habit of washing hands. They need to do more, as they constantly play in the sand, the ground, puddles, where the most favorable conditions for eggs and larvae of parasites, and contact with Pets and street animals.
  • If you experience any discomfort, we cannot exclude the bot, so it's recommended to perform appropriate tests for parasites to identify a particular species of helminth (against most of them there are medications.
  • If parasites are detected in one family member, the drugs from the bot needs to take all.
  • Folk medicine knows many ways how to get rid of the worms, and they give a good effect.
  • Do not leave open cooked meals, bread, pastries, etc. that flies or cockroaches carry eggs of intestinal worms – not left them on the products.
  • Carefully observe the temperature regime in the process of cooking: meat and fish, which are often found helminth eggs, to boil/fry/bake.
  • Rinse well in tap water vegetables, fruits, greens that are consumed raw.
  • Regularly deworming Pets.
  • To abandon the use of faeces as fertilizer in their garden plots.
  • When traveling to exotic countries extremely wary of the local cuisine, especially the street – there is no guarantee that with them you don't catch some exotic vermes.